1. topics, prev post, next post : its translatable.
if you are using codestyling localization, it may have problem not to display all string. try to use http://poedit.net/ it have better tool for translation.
2. you can select the logo / icon by writing, please take a look right here for complete font name : http://fortawesome.github.io/Font-Awesome/icons/
3. it seems you trying to translate text from wordpress it self for footer widget. you will need to get wordpress own translatable text for that.
4. may i know what text you write on your footer? is it HTML?
5. you will also need to translate jmagz-plugin for “people also read” text.